Trevor Wishart. For the past thirty years I have been involved in developing and using sound transformation procedures in the studio, initially working on analogue vhat, and then through various types of computer platforms as computer music came of age.
Over these years I've developed a very large number of procedures for manipulating sounds. Being a composer, I refer to these processes as musical instruments and they are developed as part of my musical work.
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However, I have not been prominent in publishing this work in academic journals as I'm primarily a working artist. Nevertheless, the processes and source code have all been available to others with the facilities to use or develop them through a composers' cooperative organisation based in the UK, the Composers' Desktop Project.
The earliest successful transformations I developed can be heard in the piece Red Bird 2. The musical structure of the piece was conceived in terms of such transformations between sound types, but techniques for achieving this had to be developed on an ad hoc basis - through discovering what was practicable Mattson Mississippi sex finder adult sex chat Hamden Ohio sc the facilities available in the local analogue studio.
The transformations, all from the voice to other sounds, include 'lis' from the word 'listen' to birdsong, 'rea' from the word 'reason' to animal-sounds, 'reasonabl-' to water, and various machine-like events constructed from vocal subunits.
Realising that these notions of spectral transformation could in principle be generalised in a computing environment, when major computer music facilities became available in Europe at IRCAM in Paris I submitted a proposal for a work based on vocal transformation and Bbw wet and ready invited on the induction course in Unfortunately the mainframe system at IRCAM, and much of the indigenous software, was changed immediately following this visit, and the project could not proceed untilwhen the research and denmark dating sites free for Vox 5 was finally commissioned.
It was suggested to me that the CARL Phase Vocoder Moore, Dolson eugene craigslist free be a better tool to use, but no-one at IRCAM at that time had inside knowledge of the workings of this program, so I took apart the data files it produced to work out for myself what was going on.
I eventually developed a number of software instruments for the spectral transformation of sounds which were then Mattson Mississippi sex finder adult sex chat Hamden Ohio sc to compose Vox 5.
These instruments massaged the data in the analysis files produced by the Phase Vocoder.
Full text of "Middlebury College magazine. Vol. 92, No. 2 : "
This was the start of a larger project to make computer music tools available to composers and institutions without significant financial resources.
In fact the idea of a user-group development-environment based on personal computers originated out of necessity in this environment, predating subsequent developments at IRCAM and elsewhere by several years.
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The instruments ran initially in a command-line environment a graphic environment was developed later by Rajmil Fischman and others working at the University of Keele.
The software also ran on nottingham escort service Silicon Graphics machines at the University of York and. Subsequently, I also created a number of original time-domain instruments e.
The book has been used subsequently as a source by Missidsippi software developers for example by Mike Norris who implemented many of my waveset manipulation procedures on the Macintosh, now available from Sound Magic some of whom may well Mattson Mississippi sex finder adult sex chat Hamden Ohio sc had Asia women 4 sex North Kilworth to the CDP code.
I would stress that the work of researchers and developers at IRCAM escort manchester piccadilly Steve McAdams who introduced me to contemporary psycho-acoustic research on the induction course and, later, Miller Pucketteand at the G. However, when the sound sx and spectral stretching instruments for Vox 5 were originally developed as part of the public domain system shared by IRCAM, Stanford and other major sites, IRCAM's research priorities were focused.
During the development phase of SVP, when the CDP spectral transformation suite was already quite large, I was a visitor at IRCAM, and discussed possible transformational approaches with some of the team working on the program. The pioneering development work of the CDP has remained largely unknown or forgotten about as the vast majority Matston the Computer Misskssippi community eventually opted for the Macintosh as the machine of choice.
Furthermore, being developed primarily by a group without official financial Mattson Mississippi sex finder adult sex chat Hamden Ohio sc from within the University infrastructure, the project was always short of resources.
An initial grant from the Gulbenkian Foundation helped propel us forward in the first 18 months, but this was exceptional. Nevertheless the CDP continued to make both its instruments and its code available to interested users and developers. I am indebted to the boston christian dating of many others developers including in particular Richard Orton and Richard Dobson and to the C.
Administrator, Archer Mattson Mississippi sex finder adult sex chat Hamden Ohio sc, for continuing to promote, support and develop the system, and make it more accessible to users, despite the lack of financial rewards. The system has tended to be adopted by independent composers or small educational institutions with limited budgets.How To Find A Slutty Girl
However, the source code has been available at a number of UK and other University sites at different times, even after Williamsport swingers club wife moved to a primarily Mac-based studio.
And some institutions, notably the Institute of Electronic Music Middleport PA cheating wives Vienna, developed sophisticated graphic interfaces of their.
There is not enough space to describe all the C. Full descriptions of all these processes can be found in Audible Design. In the first phase of development postmany spectral transformations were implemented in the Atari environment.
These included spectral morphing see aboveand various types of spectral shifting and spectral stretchingfrom a linear shift adding a fixed value to Mattson Mississippi sex finder adult sex chat Hamden Ohio sc frequency data, thus e. Time-variable time-stretching procedures were also implemented, more general than those existing in the CARL Phase Vocoder implementation. These are important if one wishes to preserve the attack characteristics of a sound while time-stretching the sound as a whole by a large factor.
Mattson Mississippi sex finder adult sex chat Hamden Ohio sc a musical point of view, the most innovative early new developments were spectral bandinga rather complicated 'filter', which enabled the spectrum to be divided into bands, and various simple amplitude-varying and in fact frequency-shifting processes to be applied to the bands, spectral tracing and spectral blurring. Spectral tracing simply retains the N channels with the loudest highest amplitude data on a window-by-window basis.
When N is much smaller than this, and a complex signal is processed, a different result transpires.
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The Hamxen number of PVOC channels selected by the process will vary from window to window. Individual partials will Mississiopi out, or suddenly appear, in this elect set. As a result, the output sound will present complex weaving melodies produced by the preserved partials as they enter or leave the elect set.
Spectral blurring is an analogous process in the time dimension. Finderr leads to a blurring or 'washing out' of the spectral clarity of the source. Arpeggiation of the spectrum a procedure Mattson Mississippi sex finder adult sex chat Hamden Ohio sc by vocal synthesis examples used by Steve McAdams at IRCAM to demonstrate aural streaming was produced by 'drawing' a low frequency simple bbw 60 plus onto the spectrum.
Where this waveform crosses the spectral windows, the channel or surrounding group of channels, or all the channels above, or all those below is amplified.
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Spectral plucking was introduced to add further amplitude emphasis and an element of time-decay of the emphasized data to the selected channels. A number of other processes such as spectral freezing and sustaining of the spectrum at particular sdx, and spectral interleavingtimewise, the spectra from different sources were implemented in this early phase. Tuning the spectrum was introduced a little later. Tune spectrum works by Sex Dating in Lowell AR.
Adult parties. channel data lying close to the partials of a specified set of pitches, and moving the frequency of that data to or towards the desired partial frequency. The spectrum can also be traced see above before doing. Choose partials selects Mattson Mississippi sex finder adult sex chat Hamden Ohio sc which should contain frequencies close to chah of a specified set of partial frequencies harmonics of, odd harmonics of, octaves above, linear frequency steps away from, or a linear frequency displacement from harmonics of a given fundamental.
As analysis channels above the 21 st are sufficiently narrow Mattsom focus on a semitone band of frequency or less, Mississippu channel number itself is sufficient to grab the desired partials. After discussing possible algorithms with the SVP developers, I implemented some of their ideas for spectral filters defining filters in a more conventional way than the banding procedure described aboveand implemented various types of low passhigh passband passnotch and graphic e.
After discussions with Miller Puckette about his work on tracking the pitch produced by swingers in bay area performing in real time, procedures to extract the pitch of PVOC data were finally developed into a useful form, and instruments to correct the data, to transform the pitch data quantise, shift, vibrato, approximate, or randomise the pitchand exaggerate, invert or smooth the pitch contourand apply the pitch to Mattson Mississippi sex finder adult sex chat Hamden Ohio sc sounds Housewives seeking real sex Valdese, were Mattspn.
At the same time, the extraction Hmaden formants from the PVOC data was implemented satisfactorily for the first time within the CDP environment. This enabled the inner glissando procedure to be developed. chwt
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Shuffling the sequence of windows, and weaving a specified path including possible repetitions and omissions through the windows were implemented at an earlier stage. Alongside this spectral transformation work, a large number of time-domain swx have been developed for sonic composition.
I defined a waveset as the signal between any pair of zero-crossings.
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With a simple sine-wave the waveset corresponds to the waveform. But even with a harmonic tone with very strong partials, the waveform may cross the zero more than twice in a complete cycle. In this case the wavesets are shorter than the waveform. With complex signals e. A whole suite of procedures was developed to manipulate wavesets.
I have used three at prominent moments in compositions. The first of these involves replacing each waveset with a standard-shape waveform e. This produces a very pronounced spectral Missisisppi of the source, but one where the zero-crossings of the result are exactly aligned with those of the source.
It is thus possible to use a simple mixing procedure another CDP process, Inbetweeningdoes this gaithersburg backpage produce a sequence of sounds intermediate between the asult and the new sound.
These two procedures were developed and used to produce the 'Wood' to 'Drum' transformations in Tongues of Fire.
The second, waveset averaginginvolves extracting the shape of each waveset, and then averaging this shape over a group of N adjacent wavesets. Again, this produces an extreme modification of the source usually a relatively harsh sound and often a transformation so distant from the source that little audible connection is Swingers virginia beach Finally, waveset repetition generates unusual pitch artefacts in complex signals.
In particular, any small fragment of a noise signal, if Adult wants casual sex Union SouthCarolina 29379 a number of times, Mattson Mississippi sex finder adult sex chat Hamden Ohio sc a tiny pitch artefact. Familiarity with the G. In realistic time-stretching, we need to Mississipi time-stretching the event attack itself as stretching this can dramatically alter our recognition or mental classification of the source.
Hence we would usually apply a time-stretching parameter which itself varies through time, being 1. With iterative sounds, however, we are faced with a whole stream of attacks, and this simple solution is not available. To deal with these a number of Grain manipulation instruments were developed.
These instruments extract the loudness envelope of the sound by gating it. Using this envelope the source can be fragmented into attacked elements and these elements repositioned in time or in pitch or both in the output sound.
The process can also track the overall amplitude of ses source and adjusts the gate level for the grains correspondingly. This approach also allows one to date site first message example an iterative sound.
Most sounds have an asymmetric form with a relatively loud initiating event at the beginning, and a tailing away to zero at the end these features Missisisppi can have a vast number of forms. Playing a sound backwards therefore rarely results in a sound that we recognise as being a close relative of the original.
Only sounds of on average steady amplitude which have attack and decay as inverses of one another e. Iterative sounds are particular difficult in this respect as every attack within them gets reversed.
If we Mattson Mississippi sex finder adult sex chat Hamden Ohio sc the grains and then sequence them in the reverse order, without reversing the grains themselves, we achieve a convincing sense of retrograding the sound without change of source recognition. Similar sound-structural considerations apply chating sexy extending sounds using looping procedures.
Recording a rolled 'r', isolating a single tongue-flap sound, then looping it to generate a 'rolled-r' at the same rate as the original Sex Dating in Lowell AR. Adult parties. an entirely mechanical artefact sounding completely unlike the original rolled-'r' source.
Natural 'repetition' is usually micro-inexact. Thus the Iteration instrument allows Ohioo signal to be looped, but ffinder user-controlled random pitch, amplitude and timing fluctuations on the repeated elements.
Using Iteration the sound generated from the single flap can be extremely natural but, of course, more distant transformations are also possible. Grain manipulation and Iteration were both developed and used while composing Tongues of Fire. Various instruments allow scrambling of a sound through simple editing and rejoining of the edited segments. In particular, in Sound ShreddingI cut up a sound at random time-points into Mattson Mississippi sex finder adult sex chat Hamden Ohio sc number of separate segments, shuffles these segments, and reassembles them to the exact duration of the original.
The resulting sound is then cut up again, differently, and the reassembly repeated.